The History, Nature and Development of International Humanitarian Law: A Critical Review


  • Peter Chukwuemeka Onwudinjo
  • Ukachukwu Mahakweabba
  • Gab A Agu


Armed Conflicts, Conventions, Human Right Violation, International Humanitarian Law, Protection of Victims


This paper explores the History, Nature and Development of International Humanitarian Law: A critical review. Doctrinal research methodology was used. International Humanitarian Law (IHl) earlier known as the laws of war is applied in the armed conflict to protect those who don’t take part in the hostilities or no longer taking part in the hostility M.S Isian (2018) opined, that the rules of conflict or fight although, first documented in 1863 after the war of Solferino, it was slightly existed and practiced from the beginning of human being. The earliest societies, the Papua, the Sumerians, Babylon, Persians, the Greek, and the Roman, in all societies had some rules of fighting and these rules were strictly followed by people. Every religion namely, Christian, Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist contains a handful of provisions on the law of armed conflict (LOAC). The scattered provisions of (LOAC) have been accumulated in the documents, the lieber code in 1863 and the first Geneva Convention 1864. Later on many Conventions, Protocols, Declarations on Armed conflicts (AC) have been adopted in various times depending on the nature of conflict and protection of the victims. Four Geneva Conventions in 1949, it’s three Additional protocols (APs) in 1977 and 2005 and the permanent International criminal court in 1998 have given a great success to the development of International Humanitarian Law.


Author Biographies

Peter Chukwuemeka Onwudinjo

Department of Economics

Caritas University, Amorji-Nike, Enugu

Ukachukwu Mahakweabba

Faculty of Law

University of Nigeria, Nsukka.



Gab A Agu

Faculty of Law

Enugu State University of Science and Technology 






CJMSSH Volume 1 Issue 1